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     Tundra soil is permanently frozen except for a thin layer that thaws briefly during the short, cool, summer. Plant life is dominated by lichens, moss and a few grasses and shrubs. Many animals hibernate or migrate to avoid winter. Musk ox, caribou, reindeer and Arctic wolves, remain active all year.



Modern cities are centers of employment, education, and culture. But they are also centers of poverty, delinquency, crime, prostitution, alcoholism and drug abuse. As a rule, cities offer less space, less daylight, less fresh air, less greenery, and more noise.

~Georg Borgstrom